2018 AYLS Summary

As 2019 approaches, we still know nothing about what causes AYLS!

During 2018, there were ZERO new reports of AYLS being either ABSENT or PRESENT, just two reports from Oregon that were revised to PRESENT.  In order to identify the cause, it is necessary to have a clear idea of where AYLS is ABSENT or PRESENT, so if you grow Actinidia vines (especially the Hardy Kiwi Actinidia arguta) in your garden or commercially, or know of someone who does in areas that have few or no reports such as California or States other than Washington, Canadian Provinces, European and Asian Countries, and the entire Southern Hemisphere, Please file a report using the form on the Map of AYLS Locations Worldwide page after your location reaches 1,500 Degree Days (using a base of 41 degrees Farenheit) per the following link or a similar model available for your location:


AYLS first appears each year on leaves that are mature by the time the 1,500 Degree Days have accumulated.  Is AYLS caused by a disease, soil disorder, environmental condition, or some other factor?  Only accurate reporting from around the World and testing of samples by those who have the ability to identify causes that don’t show using common Bacterial, Fungal, and Viral pathogen tests will lead to an answer!


Bob Glanzman,  Seattle, WA, USA


My trip to Corvallis, Oregon

In an attempt to find out why AYLS is PRESENT in Western Washington locations reporting or that I have visited, but ABSENT from all locations reporting in Western Oregon since 2014, I visited Corvallis in mid-August.  The three attached photos explain it all!

I don’t think this indicates AYLS is spreading, just that there have been many inaccurate observations and Reports.

If you are growing Actinidia arguta or other smooth skin species of Actinidia and have not Reported yet, or have previously Reported that AYLS is ABSENT from your plants, please look carefully at them again and file a Report using the form available on the About AYLS or Map of AYLS locations Worldwide on this site.

Bob Glanzman,  Seattle, WA, USA

AYLS is back again for 2018

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We still have no idea what is causing AYLS!  Lab tests thus far have all been negative for the presence of Bacterial, Fungal, and 11 Viral Pathogens. Tests of leaves showed no probable Plant Nutrient Deficiencies or Toxicity causes.

AYLS symptoms were first visible at my place in Seattle this year on a potted seedling arguta on June 16, 2018.  As noted last year, there appears to be a correlation between about 1,500 Degree Days (using the uspest.org model for my Neighborhood) and the annual emergence of AYLS.  We reached 1,525 Degree Days on June 18.  Thus far symptoms are visible on potted arguta, hypoleuca, kolomikta, macrosperma, melanandra, polygama, tetramera, arguta x deliciosa, & melanandra x arguta plants as well as in-ground argutas & argutas grafted to in-ground deliciosa vines.

Those of you living in North America can use the Map function at the following link to locate the weather station nearest your location, then run the calculations to see when you reached 1,500 Degree Days: http://uspest.org/cgi-bin/ddmodel.us?sta=C6259&mdt=all&spp=aaa&cal=A&stm=1&std=1&styr=18&enm=12&end=31&cel=0&fcast=1&spyr=0&shd=1&mkt=0&mkg=1&ipc=1&evnts=3

Why AYLS is PRESENT in nearly all Western Washington locations that have Reported, but ABSENT in all Oregon locations that have Reported is of particular interest to me.  I hope to visit Corvallis Oregon this growing season to see the U.S. germplasm collection of smooth skinned Actinidia species to see if they have any answers.

The extent of AYLS Distribution Worldwide is only documented for a few locations in the Northern Hemisphere, with only one report in 2014 from the Southern Hemisphere.  If you are growing Actinidia species, particularly the hairless fruiting species (such as arguta, kolomikta, melanandra, & polygama), please take the time to file a report after your location has reached 1,700 Degree Days using the form on either the Home page or the Map of AYLS locations Worldwide page.  The Report form has fields for both AYLS is PRESENT and AYLS is ABSENT at your location.  Knowing where AYLS is ABSENT is just as important as knowing where it is PRESENT!  If AYLS is PRESENT on your vines and you know the date symptoms first appeared, please report that date in the comments field.

Bob Glanzman,
   Seattle, WA. USA

2017 AYLS Summary

Another year has passed and still no answer to what is causing AYLS!

Only a handful of new reports came in during 2017, all indicating AYLS is PRESENT except one personal observation that AYLS was ABSENT from arguta & deliciosa vines in Port Orchard, Washington. Those plants were in a hoop-house, possibly indicating that AYLS might be an Environmental problem rather than a Disease.

Two locations in Western Washington where the growers have consistently reported since 2014 that AYLS was ABSENT were refuted by personal observation that showed AYLS is PRESENT! Those observations now confirm that AYLS is PRESENT in all but about four locations reported from Abbotsford, B.C., Canada to south of Centralia, Washington. It is imperative that all people actually take the time to look closely at all vegetation on the vines before submitting a report. Many more reports are needed from around the World to obtain an idea of where AYLS is really PRESENT or ABSENT before an answer about the cause can be found.

One interesting observation is that AYLS emergence here in Seattle coincides with approximately 1,500 degree days as computed by the US.PEST.org website using a base of 41°F in this calculator for my local weather station (which may be reset using the Map function for a weather station in your area if you live in the USA and some parts of Canada):

Again, if you know of any Actinidia growers worldwide from areas that haven’t reported, please take the time to let them know about this site, and ask them to submit a Report using the form available on either the About AYLS or Map of AYLS locations Worldwide pages of this site.

Happy Growing,
Bob Glanzman
Seattle, WA USA

AYLS is back again for 2017, later than past years!

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AYLS first appeared at my place in Seattle this year on a potted seedling arguta on June 25 2017, about 25 days later than 2015 & 2016!  The late appearance caused me to question what triggers the onset of AYLS?  Examining the uspest.org website came up with one answer, Degree Days!  Based on the onset of AYLS in 2015 & 2016, and estimated time of onset in 2014, it appears that there is a correlation between onset and about 1,500 degree days as calculated by their model for Seattle station C6259.  In the USA and parts of Canada, you can find your local station using the Map at this link:  http://uspest.org/cgi-bin/ddmodel.us

None of the Plant Pathologists on my e-mail list have responded yet to my inquiry as to the apparent Degree Day correlation and what that might suggest may be the cause, but I will do another post if it suggests a possible cause.

Since June 25, it has become visible on potted kolomikta & melanandra plants as well as more argutas.  On July 4, AYLS appeared on a single leaf of one of my in-ground argutas so it is progressing, but not as rampant as in 2014.

Anyone who grows Actinidia vines should fill out a Report form on either the Home page or the Map of AYLS locations Worldwide page.  The Report form has fields for both AYLS is PRESENT and AYLS is ABSENT at your location.  Knowing where AYLS is ABSENT is just as important as knowing where it is PRESENT!  If AYLS is PRESENT on your vines and you know the date symptoms first appeared, please report that date in the comments field.

Bob Glanzman,
Seattle, WA. USA

2016 AYLS Summary

2016 has been a disappointing year due to lack of progress in finding the cause of AYLS!

There were a number of new Reports in 2016 of both ABSENT and PRESENT.  The Reports show that AYLS is PRESENT in more of Western Washington all the way North to Abbotsford BC Canada, and in other US States as well as locations in Europe.  Several of these Reports have not been confirmed with photographs however.

My conclusion is the 2016 Reports do not indicate that AYLS is spreading, but are merely filling in the blanks in our understanding of current distribution.  Hundreds if not thousands or additional Reports from around the World are needed to fully understand the extent of AYLS.

An additional test of affected leaves resulted in NEGATIVE for the presence of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens.

Over the past three years of active searching for the cause, I believe that we can rule out:       1. Cultural Practices due to distribution patterns.    2. Bacterial Pathogens due to test results.    3. Fungal Pathogens due to test results.    4. Nutrient causes due to two fertilized test plots, both of which showed AYLS symptoms although at a diminished level compared to unfertilized plants.

That leaves several possibilities:    1. Viral Pathogens which will only be either confirmed or denied by “Next Generation Sequencing” to search for the presence or absence of a Virus.  This process is far beyond my means and is not likely to occur unless some University takes it on as an unfunded Research Project.    2. Environmental Causes, which will require thousands of Reports from around the World to get a clear idea of Distribution patterns in order to focus on possible Environmental Factors.    3. The possibility that was suggested to me this year that AYLS is “Everywhere” in Actinidia Species.  I believe this is a far-fetched idea due to Reports of ABSENT from trusted Actinidia Researchers and Growers in several Countries, but without personally observing plants outside the Puget Sound Region of Western Washington, I can’t definitely rule out this possibility.  A trip to Actinidia plantings in Oregon next Summer is on my list of things to do.

Since my proactive efforts to obtain Reports from growers Worldwide have generated inadequate responses (including NO Reports from the Southern Hemisphere other than a 2014 contact from New Zealand), I will limit my efforts in 2017 to periodic new posts on this page and adding any Reports that are submitted to the “Map of AYLS locations Worldwide” page.  The outreach efforts are now YOUR responsibility to contact other Actinidia growers you know and Fruit Organizations you are a Member of to let them know about this Site!

Thanks,   “kiwibob”,  Seattle, Washington, USA

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Time to check your Kiwi plants for AYLS

The first signs of AYLS were visible on potted Actinidia vines on June 1 and have since appeared on 7 (arguta, hypoleuca, kolomikta, macrosperma, melanandra, polygama, & tetramera) of my 12 Actinidia species as well as on plants in other locations in Seattle.  Symptoms are now becoming visible on Hardy Kiwi vines planted in the ground.  It’s time to start checking your Kiwi plants for AYLS.  If symptoms aren’t visible yet, check your plants about every 10-15 days from now until early September.  As soon as symptoms are visible, please report PRESENT as noted on the “About AYLS” page.  If no symptoms are visible by September 1, please report ABSENT at that time.

Since all Bacterial, Fungal, and Viral tests thus far have returned NEGATIVE, we need to get a much better idea of where AYLS is affecting Actinidia vines to focus on the possible cause.

Thanks,   “kiwibob”,  Seattle, Washington, USA

AYLS is back again for 2016!

AYLS was probably visible a few days ago but today was the first time I noticed the signs of AYLS in some of my potted seedling plants.  It can be expected to be visible on plants in the ground later this month and should be affecting almost all Actinidia species before mid-July.

During 2016 we need to gather many more reports of ABSENT or PRESENT to get a better idea of the Worldwide Distribution of AYLS, so please let anyone who grows Actinidia vines know about this Site.

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Thanks,   “kiwibob”,  Seattle, Washington, USA

2015 Summary Report

Although AYLS symptoms were not as severe as in 2014, as 2015 ends, there is still no answer of what causes AYLS!

A new round of tests in 2015 for Bacterial, Fungal, and (Potyvirus complex) Viral causes all came out Negative!

Two cases that I followed of presumably “clean” Actinidia arguta plants purchased in 2014 indicate that AYLS is communicable!  The first case consisted of 2 vines purchased in early Spring 2014 and planted in the ground in Seattle.  By mid-July 2015, one of the two showed clear AYLS symptoms.  The second case is one vine purchased in Summer 2014 and still in a pot in Seattle.  It showed clear AYLS symptoms by mid-August 2015.

Several new reports of PRESENT were submitted in 2015, all from King & Pierce Counties in Western Washington.  These reports were the first from each specific location and should not be construed as a spreading of AYLS.  Two reports of ABSENT were submitted in 2015, one from Corvallis Oregon, and the other from Delaware.  Many more locations need to report if AYLS is ABSENT or PRESENT for the Worldwide Map of AYLS to become a useful tool in the search for a cause.

Hopefully 2016 will bring answers instead of more questions.

Happy New Year,   “Kiwibob”, Seattle Washington, USA

It’s 2015 and AYLS is back again!

It’s June 21, 2015 and as I expected, AYLS is back again this year in Seattle.  Symptoms began appearing on three leaves around June 1 and are now apparent on leaves of most smooth-skinned Actinidia species in my collection in rooted cuttings, potted plants, and plants in the ground.  One nearby Home Grower has reported AYLS on both his argutas and kolomiktas.

Since no progress was made in 2014 on identifying the responsible pathogen, it’s time for everyone who views this Blog to send the link to all Actinidia Growers they know, and to any Fruit Growing Groups you are a Member of.  Particularly important is enlisting the help of Plant Pathologists, so if you know any, make sure to send them the link and ask for their help.  Please sign in to “Follow” this Blog so you will get an automatic e-mail notification of any new posts, of which this is only the fourth post since the Blog was created in August 2014.  By working cooperatively together, we might be able to identify the cause of AYLS in 2015!

I’ve added a new page for AYLS photos taken in 2015. If you reported that AYLS was PRESENT or ABSENT in your Actinidia collection in 2014, please send me a report for 2015 as soon as you see AYLS appear, or around late August if AYLS is ABSENT from your collection, giving me your location (nearest town), which Actinidia species you are growing, and an e-mail address so I can contact you. If AYLS is PRESENT, please take 3-4 digital photos about 200-400kb in size and send them to the Blog email address.

Many of the affected leaves in my collection have small insect bodies on the back side of the leaf.  I suspect that AYLS is transmitted by insects and know of two test cases here in Seattle where Home Gardeners purchased Actinidia plants during 2014 that came from sources that don’t have AYLS.  Later this Summer, I’ll report whether those plants have been infected since their purchase and planting in the ground last year.

Also planned for 2015 is the addition of a Researchers page which I hope will facilitate communication between Plant Pathologists, Actinidia Researchers, and Agriculture Extension Agents.

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Happy Growing,
Seattle, Washington, USA